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melbuild, mel-build, meliorate, build, building, TEM, HATA, hata, Hata
Holder, Transmission electron microscope, tool, tools, option, options,
University, Study, Studies, Report, Reports, Paper, One of a series of
weak-beam dark-field images of dislocations in silicon (left) and tomography
3D, reconstruction, dislocations tomographically, reconstructed, weak-beam,
dark-field, silicon, High-Angle, Triple-Axis, (HATA), tomography, holder,
diffraction, weak, imaging, crystal, HATA holder, diffraction, tilt range,,
tilt-series, reflection, emission gun, transmission electron microscope,
FEGTEM, resolution, preparation, p-type, focussed ion beam, FIB, ion-beam
milling, elaborated elsewhere, back-projection algorithms, sequentially,
iterated reconstruction, technique, SIRT, Barnard J.S., Sharp J., Tong
J.R. Science, Higashida K., Narita N., Tanaka M., Morikawa T., Miura Y.,
Onodera R. Philosophical Magazine,Jonatham, Barnard, Metallurgy, CAMBRIDGE,
Cambridge, cambridge,apers, instrument, instruments, joystick, joytilt,
joy tilt, button, tilt, alpha, beta, tecnai, titan, FEI, Gatan, Jeol, Hitachi,
Zeiss, FIB, Dual beam, holder, double tilt, double tilt holder, Japan,
World, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010,
new, news, English, Japanese, unit, mm, um, nano, nanotech, nano technology,
degree, degrees, doctor, dr, prof, professor, research, R & D, specimen,
sample, prep, preparation, mounting, rotation, rotate, mechanics, mechanism,
high angel, triple axis, double axis, System, Systems, Parts, Part, Patent,
Protected, CFS, ST, UT, Twin, Ultra, Super, Quality, High precision, nano
world, acquire, 3D, Tomo, Tomography, Explore, Digital, Analog, Software,
Download, Update, Updates, FEG, 20F, 30F, F30, F20, T20, T30, T12, T10,
G2, G3, Azimuth, Optic, Optics, light, electrons, Attach, Attachments,
Attachable, View, Observe, Observation, Look, See, Understand, Low background,
Be, Beryllium, EDX, EDS, Detection, EDAX, Detect, Noise, Signal, HAADF,
STEM, BF, DF, Price, Pricy, Cheap, Expensive, Inexpensive, Good, High,
Highest, Best, Easy, Easiest, X-Ray, side, entry, side entry, side-entry,
Philips, Calibrate, Calibration, Service, Serviceman, Repair, Sale, Sales,
Physics, Chemistry, Nano tube, Tube, Nanotube, Computer, PC, Amira, load,
loading, National, International, Nitrogen, Helium, SF6, Liquid, Cold,
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80kV, 60kV, 400 kV, 300 kV, 200 kV, 120 kV, 100 kV, 80 kV, 60 kV, Kilovolt,
kV, HT, High Tension, Discharge, Unstable, Stable, Stability, Siemens,
Materials, HRTEM, HRSTEM, HR-TEM, HR-STEM, EELS, PEELS, Filter, Omega,
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+/-70°, +/-75°, X, Y, Z, Movement, 2mm, 3mm, grid, gridbar, film, Fujifilm,
Kodak, CCD, GIF, Tridiem, Tridium, TESCAN, An electron microscope is a
type of microscope that uses electrons to illuminate and create an image
of a specimen. It has much higher magnification and resolving power than
a light microscope, with magnifications up to about two million times.
Unlike a light microscope, which uses glass lenses to focus light, the
electron microscope uses electrostatic and electromagnetic lenses to control
the illumination and imaging of the specimen. The first electron microscope
prototype was built in 1931 by the German engineers Ernst Ruska and Max
Knoll. It was based on the ideas and discoveries of French physicist Louis
de Broglie. Although it was primitive and not fit for practical use, the
instrument was still capable of magnifying objects by four hundred times.
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) Main article: Transmission electron
microscopy The original form of electron microscopy, Transmission electron
microscopy (TEM) involves a high voltage electron beam emitted by a cathode,
usually a tungsten filament and focused by electrostatic and electromagnetic
lenses. The electron beam that has been transmitted through a specimen
that is in part transparent to electrons carries information about the
inner structure of the specimen in the electron beam that reaches the imaging
system of the microscope. The spatial variation in this information (the
"image") is then magnified by a series of electromagnetic lenses
until it is recorded by hitting a fluorescent screen, photographic plate,
or light sensitive sensor such as a CCD (charge-coupled device) camera.
The image detected by the CCD may be displayed in real time on a monitor
or computer. Resolution of the TEM is limited primarily by spherical aberration,
but a new generation of aberration correctors have been able to partially
overcome spherical aberration to increase resolution. Software correction
of spherical aberration for the High Resolution TEM HRTEM has allowed the
production of images with sufficient resolution to show carbon atoms in
diamond separated by only 0.89 ångström (89 picometers) and atoms in silicon
at 0.78 ångström (78 picometers) at magnifications of 50 million times.
The ability to determine the positions of atoms within materials has made
the HRTEM an important tool for nano-technologies research and development.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon. A single wall carbon
nanotube (SWNT) is a one-atom thick sheet of graphite (called graphene)
rolled up into a seamless cylinder with diameter of the order of a nanometer.
This results in a nanostructure where the length-to-diameter ratio exceeds
10,000. Such cylindrical carbon molecules have novel properties that make
them potentially useful in many applications in nanotechnology, electronics,
optics and other fields of materials science. They exhibit extraordinary
strength and unique electrical properties, and are efficient conductors
of heat. Inorganic nanotubes have also been synthesized. Nanotubes are
members of the fullerene structural family, which also includes buckyballs.
Whereas buckyballs are spherical in shape, a nanotube is cylindrical, with
at least one end typically capped with a hemisphere of the buckyball structure.
Their name is derived from their size, since the diameter of a nanotube
is in the order of a few nanometers (approximately 50,000 times smaller
than the width of a human hair), while they can be up to several millimeters
in length. There are two main types of nanotubes: single-walled nanotubes
(SWNTs) and multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs). The nature of the bonding of
a nanotube is described by applied quantum chemistry, specifically, orbital
hybridization. The chemical bonding of nanotubes are composed entirely
of sp2 bonds, similar to those of graphite. This bonding structure, which
is stronger than the sp3 bonds found in diamond, provides the molecules
with their unique strength. Nanotubes naturally align themselves into "ropes"
held together by Van der Waals forces. Under high pressure, nanotubes can
merge together, trading some sp2 bonds for sp3 bonds, giving great possibility
for producing strong, unlimited-length wires through high-pressure nanotube
linking. Electron diffraction is a technique used to study matter by firing
electrons at a sample and observing the resulting interference pattern.
This phenomenon occurs due to the wave-particle duality, which states that
a particle of matter (in this case the incident electron) can be described
as a wave. For this reason, an electron can be regarded as a wave much
like sound or water waves. This technique is similar to X-ray diffraction
and neutron diffraction. Electron diffraction is most frequently used in
solid state physics and chemistry to study the crystal structure of solids.
These experiments are usually performed in a transmission electron microscope
(TEM), or a scanning electron microscope (SEM) as electron backscatter
diffraction. In these instruments, the electrons are accelerated by an
electrostatic potential in order to gain the desired energy and wavelength
before they interact with the sample to be studied. The periodic structure
of a crystalline solid acts as a diffraction grating, scattering the electrons
in a predictable manner. Working back from the observed diffraction pattern,
it may be possible to deduce the structure of the crystal producing the
diffraction pattern. However, the technique is limited by the phase problem.
Apart from the study of crystals, electron diffraction is also a useful
technique to study the short range order of amorphous solids, and the geometry
of gaseous molecules. FEMMS, 2009, Twelfth Frontiers, Materials Science,
international, symposium, series, 1987. community, discussion.